Chronic Disease Management - Clinical Presentations of Diabetes

Mr S01 E01 2018 May18

Image result for pancreas and diabetesWhat is Insulin?

As we know there are three different types of Diabetes whereby each as its own associated mechanisms of development and risk factors. It’s important to firstly consider the role of Insulin, how it is produced and what systems are affected.


The Role of Insulin:

  • Main Regulation of Glucose after it has been converted via Carbohydrates or Sugar

  • It is produced by the Beta-cells in the Islets of Langerhans within the Pancreas

  • Secreted as a response to blood sugar levels/concentrations

We can see that this is an essential hormone for basic human function and regulation. With this information, we can now learn about the Patho-Physiology of Diabetes, the respective types and risk factors for patients.


What is Type 1 Diabetes?

  • It is an auto-immune condition whereby the immune system is activated to essentially destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce Insulin. 

  • This occurs when the Pancreas does not produce insulin or in very small amounts which are not sufficient

  • Carbohydrates via enzyme conversation of glucose cannot be utilised by the pancreas and thus cannot turn this sugar into energy.

  • T1 Represents around 15% of the total Diabetic patients in AUS

  • The management of the condition is dependent on systematic insulin injections or the use of insulin pump.


What is Type 2 Diabetes?

  • It is a progressive condition whereby the body develop a resistance to insulin and thus the body becomes ineffective at managing blood glucose levels.

  • It is diagnosed when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin and/or the insulin does not work effectively and/or the cells in the body does not respond to insulin effectively

  • Thus in essence – Insulin Resistance

  • T2 represents 85% of the total Diabetic patients in AUS

  • The management of this condition is healthy eating, regular physical activity and body composition.

  • Unfortunately as it is progressive a majority of people with T2 will eventually require insulin schedule similar to t1.

It’s important to understand that Diabetes is a serious Chronic Disease in Australia and through early intervention through Primary Health Care systems we can improve the patients’ quality of life, knowledge about the condition and provide materials to allow for autonomous management.